In criminal law. Con*; tributing to or aiding in the commission of a crime, one who, without being present at; the commission of a felonious offense, becomes guilty of such offense, not as a chief actor, but as a participator, as by command, advice, instigation, or concealment ; either before or after the fact or commission; a particcps criminis. 4 Bl. Comm. 35; Cowell