By allegiance is meant the obligation of fidelity and obedience whlch the lndlvldual owes to the govern-ment under which he 11 ves, or to hls sover-eign in return for the protection he receives. It may be an absolute and permanent obliga-tlon, or It may be a qualified and temporary oue. The citizen or subject owes an abso-lute aud* permaueut allegiance to his government or sovereign, or at least until, by some open and distinct act, he renounces it and becomes a citizen or subject of another government or another sovereign. The alien, while domiciled in the country, owes a lo-cal and temporary allegiance, which con-tinues during the period of his residence. Carlisle v. U. S., 16 wall. 154. 21 L. Ed. 426; Jackson v. Goodell, 20 Johns. (N. Y.) 191; U. S. v. wong Kim Ark, 169 U. S. 649, 18 Sup. Ct. 456, 42 L. Ed. 890; wallace v. Harmstad, 44 Pa. 501